The stem cells are formed by the leukemia cells in the bone marrow.These cells have uncontrolled growth and lead to decrease production of normal blood cells.From this point of view the symptoms are:anemia, increased risk of bleeding which include bleeding gums, nosebleeds, bruising, increased risk of infection, slow healing.
The common symptoms of leukemia are:fatigue, lack of appetite, weight loss, fever,sweating.When leukemia arrives to the thymus gland the possible symptoms are:coughing or shortness of breath when the trachea is pressed by the enlarged thymus and swelling of the head and arms (SVC syndrome) when the superior vena cava is pressed by the enlarged thymus.
In the case when the leukemia spreads to the central nervous system there are other possible symptoms like: headaches, poor school performance, weakness, seizures, vomiting, poor balance, blurred vision.Other potential symptoms are: enlargement of the liver and spleen, enlargement of the lymph nodes,enlargement of the testicles and bone or joint pain.
The symptoms of acute myelogenous leukemia are gingivitis and rash.The blood tests demanded for the leukemia diagnosis are: low red blood cell count, low platelets count, high white blood cell count, presence of white blood cell blasts.If blood tests shows leukemia presence, additional cells for analysis are obtained from the : bone marrow named bone marrow biopsy, lymph nodes named lymph node excision and cerebrospinal fluid named spinal tap.
To classify leukemia are used the following techniques: microscopic analysis of cell size and shape, cytochemistry-microscopic analysis of cell after treatment with chemicals, immunocytochemistry of flow cytometry-analysis of cells after treatment with laboratory antibodies, cytogenetics-analysis of the chromosomes in leukemia cells and molecular genetics-analysis of specific DNA sequences in leukemia cells.
When a child is diagnosed with leukemia the tests to be performed are the following: a chest x-ray for determine leukemia masses in the chest, bone x-rays for determine leukemia invasion of the bones or joints, a CT Scan for determine leukemia in certain lymph nodes and an MRI for determine leukemia in the brain.After the leukemia has been diagnosed additional tests can give informational about: the type of leukemia, the characteristics of the leukemia cells and its evolution through the body.
Acute lymphocytic leukemia in most cases is present to children and is indicated by two types: high-risk or low-risk.Patients with low-risk respond better to treatment with the possibility of curding, and patients with high-risk respond also to treatment but receive a more intensive treatment.Even if leukemia represents the blood cancer nowadays it can be treated due to the science evolution.